Visiting Researcher Zilin Hao

We are currently hosting visiting researcher Zilin Hao, PhD researcher at Wuhan University, in January-June for a six-months research stay. She is working on her PhD thesis (Exclusive jurisdiction for cross-border litigation) and got LLM and LLB in Law (China University of Political Science and Law).

She presents herself: “My research interests focus on the fields of private international law and international civil procedure. Before I came to Rotterdam, I learned a lot from the publications of Prof. Xandra Kramer. Thus, I appreciate Professor Kramer, who integrated me into her research group. During my stay, Xandra Kramer and her team gave me warm welcome and care. Most
importantly, by participating biweekly academic seminar with professional
teammates, I can consider my thesis question from the comparative perspective of
European private international law and civil procedure law in a straight way.
I cherish this rare opportunity for an academic visit and look forward to learning more in the coming months.”


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This page displays publications resulting from the ERC project and the Vici project

Scholarly publications

  • X.E. Kramer & G. Antonopoulou, Commercialising Litigation: The Case of the Netherlands Commercial Court, in: Albert Henke, Marco Torsello,Elena Zucconi Galli Fonseca (eds.), International Commercial Courts. A Paradigm for the Future of Adjudication?, E.S.I. Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane, Napels 2024, p. 105-119 (author copy)
  • S. Augenhofer & A. Dori, The proposed regulation of Third Party Litigation Funding - much ado about nothing?, Zeitschrift für das Privatrecht der Europäischen Union (GPR) 2023, p. 198-209
  • X.E. Kramer, The ELI-Unidroit Model European Rules of Civil Procedure: Key Features and Prospects of Costs and Funding of Collective Redress, in: S. Amrani-Mekki & T. Clay (eds.), Mélanges en l’honneur du Professeur Loïc Cadiet, LexisNexis 2023, p. 823-835 (author copy)
  • E. Silva de Freitas, The interplay of digital and legal frontiers: analyzing jurisdictional rules in GDPR collective actions and the Brussels I-bis Regulation, Nederlands Internationaal Privaatrecht (NIPR) 2023-13, p. 227-242.
  • M.C. Ucín, How Can Business Best Approach Human Rights in Third-PartyLitigation Funding? Guidelines for Future Regulations, Erasmus Law Review 2023, 16(2), Open Access
  • E. Storskrubb (eds), Funding of justice: Access to effective justice intimes of marketisation of justice and shrinking public budgets,YSEC Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions, Volume III, 2022
  • E. Storskrubb, Funding of justice: Access to effective justice in times of marketisation of justice and shrinking public budgets - Introduction, YSEC Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions 2022, p. v-xiii
  • M.C. Ucín, Revisiting the Concept of Access to Justice as a Human Right in the Post-welfare State, YSEC Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions 2022, p. 3-28 (open access)
  • A. Dori, The Supply and Demand of Justice: What Policy Implications from the EU Justice Scoreboard?, YSEC Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions 2022, p. 53-86.
  • C. Ucín, Litigio de interés público y acceso a la justicia. Algunas reflexiones a partir de la experiencia argentina (Public interest litigation and access to justice. Some reflections from the Argentinean experience), in: M. Cachón Cadenas & V. Pérez Daudi, Proceso y Consumo, Atelier Libros Jurídicos 2022, p. 213-230 (open access)
  • X.E. Kramer, S. Voet, L. Ködderitzsch, M. Tulibacka and B. Hess, Resume and Main Publications, in: X. Kramer, S. Voet, L. Ködderitzsch, M. Tulibacka and B. Hess (eds), Delivering Justice: A Holistic and Multidisciplinary Approach, Bloomsbury, 2022, p. 16-21.
  • X.E. Kramer, S. Voet, L. Ködderitzsch, M. Tulibacka and B. Hess, The Multidimensional Career of a Polymath, in: X.E. Kramer, S. Voet, L. Ködderitzsch, M. Tulibacka and B. Hess (eds), Delivering Justice: A Holistic and Multidisciplinary Approach, Bloomsbury, 2022, p. 3-13.
  • X.E. Kramer, S. Voet, L. Ködderitzsch, M. Tulibacka and B. Hess (eds), Delivering Justice: A Holistic and Multidisciplinary Approach, Bloomsbury, 2022.
  • X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas & E. Themeli (eds), Frontiers in Civil Justice: Privatisation, Monetisation and Digitisation, Edward Elgar, 2022
  • X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars and E. Themeli, Frontiers in civil justice – privatising, digitising and funding justice, in: X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas & E. Themeli (eds), Frontiers in Civil Justice: Privatisation, Monetisation and Digitisation, Edward Elgar, 2022, p. 1-20 (author copy)
  • B. Kas, The untapped potential of a structured interaction between courts and ADR for the resolution of consumer disputes in the EU, in: X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas & E. Themeli (eds), Frontiers in Civil Justice: Privatisation, Monetisation and Digitisation, Edward Elgar, 2022, p. 22-39
  • E. Themeli, The frontiers of digital justice in Europe, in: X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas & E. Themeli (eds), Frontiers in Civil Justice: Privatisation, Monetisation and Digitisation, Edward Elgar, 2022, p. 102-120
  • M. Ahmed and X.E. Kramer, Global Developments and Challenges in Costs and Funding of Civil Justice, Erasmus Law Review, 14 2021 (4), p. 181-188, Open Access;
  • E. Silva de Freitas, Money, Blackmail and Lawsuits: Revisiting Coventry v. Lawrence and the Principle of (In)equality of Arms, Erasmus Law Review 2021, 14(4), p. 198-210, Open Access;
  • A. Cordina, Is It All That Fishy? A Critical Review of the Concerns Surrounding Third Party Litigation Funding in Europe, Erasmus Law Review 2021, 14(4), p. 270-280, Open Access;
  • A. Dori, In Data We Trust? Quantifying the Costs of Adjudication in the EU Justice Scoreboard, Erasmus Law Review 2021, 14(4), p. 281-297, Open Access;
  • J. Hoevenaars, EU Law Mobilization: Lessons from a Bottom-Up Approach, in M. R. Madsen, F. Nicola & A. Vauchez (ed), Researching the European Court of Justice Methodological Shifts and Law’s Embeddedness, Cambridge University Press 2022;
  • G. Antonopoulou, Procedure before international commercial courts and ordinary courts: A comparative perspective, in S. Brekoulakis and G. Dimitropoulos (ed), International Commercial Courts: The Future of Transnational Adjudication, Cambridge University Press 2022;
  • Yalcin, Gizem, Erlis Themeli, Evert Stamhuis, Stefano Puntoni, Stefan Philipsen, ‘Perceptions of justice by algorithms’, Artificial Intelligence and Law 2022,
  • M.C. Ucín, Fundamentos teóricos para la participación ciudadana en los tribunales: una mirada a los casos de Interés Público (Theoretical foundations for citizen participation in the courts: a look at cases of Public Interest), in: Revista Paradigma, Ribeirão Preto-SP 2022 (31) 1, p. 67-86, (open access)
  • M.C. Ucín, Notas sobre derecho y eficacia. A propósito de la reforma estructural a través del proceso (Notes on law and efficacy. Apropos the structural reform through the process), in: Jueces para la Democracia. Información y Debate 2022(3), p. 81-89 (open access)
  • M.C. Ucín, Los derechos sociales en el entramado del Estado social (Social rights within the framework of Welfare State), Revista Direitos Culturais, Santo Ângelo, v. 16, n. 40, p. 321-335, set./dez. 2021, Brazil Open Access
  • M.C. Ucin, Cuestiones probatorias en el Litigio de Interés Público. Sobre la prueba de la violación de los derechos sociales (Evidence matters in Public Interest Litigation. On the proof of the violation of social rights), Revista Ítalo-Española de Derecho Procesal 2021-2, p 125-148 (open access);
  • E.M. van Gelder & A. van Duin, In de schaduw van het recht: over PayPal’s Resolution Centre en kwaliteitsstandaarden voor cODR op online platforms (In the Shadow of the Law: the PayPal Resolution Center and Quality Standards for ODR on online platforms), in P.T.J. Wolters, R.M. Hermans, A. Janssen & P. Ortolani (ed), Digitalisering en conflictoplossing (Digitization and Dispute Resolution), Wolters Kluwer 2021;
  • M.C. Ucín, Milieudefensie vs. Shell. O sobre las nuevas formas de la justicia (Milieudefensie vs. Shell. Or on the new forms of justice). Suplemento La Ley Actualidad, Editorial La Ley Argentina, October 2021. Author copy
  • M.C. Ucín, Tutela judicial efectiva en litigios estructurales. A propósito de las condiciones de detención en la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Effective judicial protection in structural claims. Apropos the imprisonment conditions in Buenos Aires Province), Revista Jurisprudencia Argentina 2021, 4 (3), 3-10 (author copy);
  • J. Hoevenaars, Tussen partijautonomie en ongelijkheidscompensatie: Hoe kantonrechters omgaan met niet-vertegenwoordigde partijen (Between party autonomy and inequality compensation: How subdistrict judges deal with unrepresented parties), Recht der Werkelijkheid 2021, p. 16-40; (full text)
  • X.E. Kramer, A. Biard, J. Hoevenaars & E. Themeli, New Pathways to Civil Justice in Europe, Springer 2021 (two chapters open access here);
  • A. Biard, J. Hoevenaars, X.E. Kramer and E. Themeli, Introduction: The Future of Access to Justice – Beyond Science Fiction, in: Xandra Kramer, Alexandre Biard, Jos Hoevenaars and Erlis Themeli, New Pathways to Civil Justice, Springer 2021 (author copy)
  • J. Hoevenaars & J. Krommendijk, Black box in Luxembourg: the bewildering experience of national court judges and lawyers in the context of the preliminary ruling procedure. European Law Review 2021, 46 (1), 61-80. (full text)
  • E. Themeli and S. Philipsen, AI as the Court: Assessing AI Deployment in Civil Cases, in K. Benyekhlef (ed), AI and Law. A Critical Overview, Éditions Thémis 2021, p. 213-232 (author copy).
  • I.N. Tzankova & X.E. Kramer, From Injunction and Settlement to Action: Collective Redress and Funding in the Netherlands, in: Alan Uzelac and Stefaan Voet, Class Actions in Europe: Holy Grail or a Wrong Trail?, Springer 2021, p. 97-130 (author copy)
  • J. Hoevenaars, Lawyering EU law: An Empirical Exploration into the Practice of Preliminary References, European Papers, 5 2020(2), (full text)
  • X.E. Kramer & I. Tillema, The Funding of Collective Redress by Entrepreneurial Parties: The EU and Dutch Context, Revista Ítalo-Española de Derecho Procesal 2020(2), p. 165-181 (full text)
  • J. Hoevenaars & X.E. Kramer, ‘Improving Access to Information in European Civil Justice: a Mission (Im)Possible?’, in: J. von Hein & T. Kruger (eds.), Informed Choices in Cross-Border Enforcement, Intersentia 2020, p. 503-525 (full text);
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Hoevenaars, ‘European Civil Procedure and the Dialogue between National Courts and the European Court of Justice’, in B. Hess and K. Lenaerts (eds.), The Fiftieth Anniversary of the European Law of Civil Procedure, Nomos 2020, p. 175-201.
  • J. Hoevenaars, Advocaten in Europa: vertegenwoordiging op het hoogste niveau? (Lawyers in Europe: Representation at the Highest Level?), Recht der Werkelijkheid 2019-3, p. 7-29 (full text)
  • J. Hoevenaars, ‘Procederen voor de hoogste rechter: Empowerment of Vervreemding?’, in A. Böcker & P. Minderhoud (eds.), Reguleren en Procederen. Bijdragen aan het seminar ter gelegenheid van de pensionering van Tetty Havinga, Wolf Legal Publishing 2020, p. 49-59 (full text)
  • A. Biard & S. Voet, ‘Expériences et attitudes de consommateurs avec le Service de Médiation pour le Consommateur/Consumentenombudsdienst : enquête sur les dossiers incomplets’, Droit de la consommation/Consumentenrecht (D.C.C.R) 2020/126;
  • E.M. van Gelder, ‘The European approach to Consumer ODR’, International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution 2019/2, p. 219-226;
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019 (296 pages) (open access);
  • J. Sorabji & X.E. Kramer, ‘Introduction - The International Business of Courts’, in X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019, p. 1-20 (full text);
  • E. Themeli, International Commercial Courts Competition in Europe: A Litigation Experience Approach, in X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019, p. 273-296. (full text);
  • A. Biard ‘Justice en ligne ou Far Www.est? La difficile régulation des plateformes en ligne de règlement extrajudiciaire des litiges’, Revue Internationale de Droit Économique 2019/2, p. 165-191;
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts in Europe and Beyond, Erasmus Law Review 2019/1 (special issue, full text);
  • E. Themeli, Matchmaking International Commercial Courts and Lawyers’ Preferences in Europe’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 70-81. (full text)
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji, International Business Courts in Europe and Beyond: A Global Competition for Justice?, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 1-9 (full text);
  • A. Biard, ‘International commercial courts in France: innovations without revolution?’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 24-32 (full text);
  • G. Antonopoulou, ‘Requirements upon agreements in favour of the NCC and the German Chambers - Crashing with the Brussels Ibis Regulation?’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 56-69 (full text);
  • A. Biard, S. Voet, K. Hanemaaijer & E.M. van Gelder, Expériences et attentes des consommateurs vis-à-vis du Service de Médiation pour le Consommateur - enquête sur les dossiers incomplets // Ervaringen en verwachtingen van consumenten over de Consumentenombudsdienst - onderzoek naar onvolledige dossiers, Juli/juillet 2019, in French and in Dutch;
  • A. Biard & B. Javaux, ‘Les recours collectifs à l’heure de la Legaltech - l’initiative européenne serait-elle déjà obsolète?’, Revue Lamy Droit Civil, September 2019, n°173;
  • A. Biard, ‘Towards high-quality consumer ADR: the Belgian experience’, in: L. Cadiet, B. Hess, M. Requejo Isidro (eds.), Privatising Dispute Resolution - Trends and Limits, Nomos 2019, vol.18 (author copy);
  • X.E. Kramer, A Common Discourse in European Private International Law? A View from the Court System, in Jan von Hein, Eva-Maria Kieninger and Giesela Rühl (eds.), How European is European Private International Law, Intersentia 2019, p. 211-230 (draft author copy);
  • G. Antonopoulou, Code-sharing agreements under the Brussels Ibis Regulation and the notion of matters relating to a contract ‒ Case note on flightright – CJEU joined cases C-274/16, C-447/16 and C-448/16, Journal of European Consumer and Market Law 2019(2), p. 89-92;
  • A. Biard & C. Hodges, Médiation de la consommation: un bilan, des défis, des pistes de réflexion pour l’avenir, Contrats Concurrence Consommation, février 2019, étude, n°2;
  • X.E. Kramer, Strengthening Civil Justice Cooperation: The Quest for Model Rules and Common Minimum Standards of Civil Procedure in Europe, in: Marco Antonio Rodrigues & Hermes Zaneti Jr, Coleção Grandes Temas do Novo CPC - v.13 - Cooperação Internacional, Editora Juspodivm 2019, p. 591-607 (author copy);
  • A. Biard & X.E. Kramer, The EU directive on representative actions for consumers: a milestone or another missed opportunity?, Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht (ZEuP) 2019, p. 249-259 (full text);
  • G. Antonopoulou, Defining International Disputes - Reflections ont he Netherlands Commercial Court Proposal, NIPR 2018, issue 4, p. 740-755 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Impact of Directive 2013/11/EU on Consumer ADR: Evidence from France and the UK, Journal of Consumer Policy 2018, p. 1-39 (full text);
  • E.M. van Gelder & A. Brenninkmeijer, The Rule of Law in the European Union: Standards of the Ombudsman, Judge, and Auditor, in: M. Hertogh & R. Kirkman (eds.), Research Handbook of the Ombudsman, Edward Elgar 2018;
  • X.E. Kramer, Challenges of Electronic Taking of Evidence: Old Problems in a New Guise and New Problems in Disguise, in: La Prueba en el Proceso/Evidence in the process (Il Conferencia Internacional & XXVI Jornadas Iberoamericanas de Derecho Procesal IIDP & IAPL), Atelier 2018, p. 391-410 (author copy);
  • A. Biard, contribution on France for the study Collective Redress in the Member States of the European Union, European Parliament, September 2018;
  • X.E. Kramer, E. Themeli & E.M. van Gelder, e-Justice in the Netherlands: The Rocky Road to Digitised Justice, in: M. Weller & M. Wendland (eds.), Digital Single Market: Bausteine eines Rechts in der Digitalen Welt, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2018, p. 209-235 (author copy);
  • E.M. van Gelder, Online Dispute Resolution: een veelbelovend initiatief voor toegang tot het recht?, Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht 2018, issue 7/8, p. 262-267.
  • A. Biard, Collective redress in the EU: a rainbow behind the clouds?, ERA Forum May 2018, p. 1-16 (full text);
  • X.E. Kramer, Judicial Cooperation in Civil Matters, in: P.J. Kuijper, F. Amtenbrink, D. Curtin, B. De Witte, A. McDonnell & S. Van den Bogaert (Eds.), The Law of the European Union, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International 2018, p. 721-740 (author copy);
  • E.M. van Gelder & A.B. Biard, The Online Resolution Platform after one Year of Operation: A Work in Progress with Promising Potential, Tijdschrift voor Consumentenrecht & Handelspraktijken 2018(2), p. 77-82 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Monitoring Consumer ADR in the EU - a Critical Perspective, European Review of Private Law 2 (2018), p. 171-196 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Sale temps pour l’action de groupe…la nécessaire recherche d’outils alternatifs pour résoudre les litiges de masse, Revue Lamy Droit Civil 157 2018, p. 21-26 (full text).

Short papers, blogs and media

Selected earlier publications relevant to the ERC and Vici project