Third-Party Funding: Trends, Developments and the Future

The team of the Vici project ‘Affordable Access to Justice’ at Erasmus School of Law, Erasmus University (Rotterdam), have organised an online research seminar ‘Third Party Funding: Trends, Developments and the Future.’ This seminar will take place on 7 December 2022 at 10-13 CET via Zoom.

The seminar will include two presentations on two of the articles in the recently published special issue of Erasmus Law Review, edited by Vici members Professor Xandra Kramer (Erasmus School of Law) and Associate Professor Masood Ahmed (University of Leicester, UK) on Global Developments and Challenges in Costs and Funding of Civil Justice. Dr David Capper (Queen’s University, Belfast) and Professor Michale Legg (UNSW, Sydney) will present their respective papers on third party funding in Australia and Ireland.

This seminar will start with the launch of the new book Frontiers in Civil Justice - Privatisation, Monetisation and Digitisation (Elgar 2022); an edited collection of essays from the ERC project Building EU Civil Justice. The book studies three interrelated frontiers in civil justice from a European and national perspectives, combining theory with policy and insights from practice: the interplay between private and public justice, the digitisation of justice, and litigation funding. These current topics are viewed against the backdrop of the requirements of effective access to justice and the overall goal of establishing a sustainable civil justice system in Europe.

Event program:

Title: Third Party Funding: Trends, Developments and the Future

9.45 – 10.00: Registration / Zoom Connection

10.00 - 10.15: Xandra Kramer and Stefaan Voet (Erasmus School of Law, KU Leuven):

Welcome, Introduction and Book Launch Frontiers in Civil Justice - Privatisation, Monetisation and Digitisation

10.15 - 10.30: Masood Ahmed (University of Leicester, UK)

Introduction and background on the special issue of Erasmus Law Review Global Developments and Challenges in Costs and Funding of Civil Justice

10.30 – 10.45: Adrian Cordina (Erasmus School of Law)

Introduction on TPF in Europe and beyond

10.45 - 11.15: Michael Legg (UNSW Sydney)

The Rise and Regulation of Litigation Funding in Australian Class Actions

11.15 - 11.30: Break

11.30 – 12.00: David Capper (Queen’s University Belfast)

Litigation Funding in Ireland

12.00 - 12.15: Discussion and Conclusion of the Seminar

Speakers’ bio:

Michael Legg

Michael Legg is a Professor in the Faculty of Law & Justice at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Michael’s research interests include case management of complex civil litigation, regulatory litigation, class actions and litigation funding. He is the author of Case Management and Complex Civil Litigation (2d ed, 2022) published by Federation Press and Public and Private Enforcement of Securities Laws - The Regulator and the Class Action in Australia’s Continuous Disclosure Regime published by Hart (2022), co-author of Corporate Misconduct and White-Collar Crime in Australia (Thomson Reuters, 2022), Civil Procedure in New South Wales (Thomson Reuters, 4th ed 2020) and Australian Annotated Class Actions Legislation (LexisNexis, 2d ed 2018). Michael is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Law, a member of the Law Society of New South Wales’ Future Committee and the Law Council of Australia’s Class Actions Committee. He is admitted to practice in Australia (NSW) and the United States (New York Bar). He holds law degrees from UNSW (LLB), the University of California, Berkeley (LLM) and the University of Melbourne (PhD).

David Capper

Dr David Capper studied Law at Queen’s University Belfast and Cambridge University from 1978 to 1984. He was a practising member of the Bar of Northern Ireland from 1984 until 1989 when he was appointed to a Lectureship in Law at Queen’s. He is now Reader in Law, teaching and writing in the fields of Private Law, Civil Procedure and Remedies. He has held visiting positions at the University of Detroit Mercy and Fordham University.

Dr Capper first became interested in access to justice and the funding of civil litigation when serving as member (1995-2001) and vice-chair (1997-2001) of the Lord Chancellor’s Legal Aid Advisory Committee for Northern Ireland. He is the sole author of two books, on Mareva Injunctions and the Enforcement of judgments in Northern Ireland, respectively, as well as around 50 law review publications. Currently he is co-editor of the Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly.


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This page displays publications resulting from the ERC project and the Vici project

Scholarly publications

  • X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas & E. Themeli (eds), Frontiers in Civil Justice:Privatisation,Monetisation and Digitisation, Edward Elgar, 2022
  • X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars and E. Themeli, Frontiers in civil justice – privatising, digitising and funding justice, in: X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas & E. Themeli (eds), Frontiers in Civil Justice:Privatisation,Monetisation and Digitisation, Edward Elgar, 2022, p. 1-20
  • B. Kas, The untapped potential of a structured interaction between courts and ADR for the resolution of consumer disputes in the EU, in: X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas & E. Themeli (eds), Frontiers in Civil Justice:Privatisation,Monetisation and Digitisation, Edward Elgar, 2022, p. 22-39
  • E. Themeli, The frontiers of digital justice in Europe, in: X.E. Kramer, J. Hoevenaars, B. Kas & E. Themeli (eds), Frontiers in Civil Justice:Privatisation,Monetisation and Digitisation, Edward Elgar, 2022, p. 102-120
  • M. Ahmed and X. Kramer, Global Developments and Challenges in Costs and Funding of Civil Justice, Erasmus Law Review, 14(4), p. 181-188, Open Access;
  • E. Silva de Freitas, Money, Blackmail and Lawsuits: Revisiting Coventry v. Lawrence and the Principle of (In)equality of Arms, Erasmus Law Review, 14(4), p. 198-210, Open Access;
  • A. Cordina, Is It All That Fishy? A Critical Review of the Concerns Surrounding Third Party Litigation Funding in Europe, Erasmus Law Review, 14(4), p. 270-280, Open Access;
  • A. Dori, In Data We Trust? Quantifying the Costs of Adjudication in the EU Justice Scoreboard, Erasmus Law Review, 14(4), p. 281-297, Open Access;
  • J. Hoevenaars, EU Law Mobilization: Lessons from a Bottom-Up Approach, in M. R. Madsen, F. Nicola & A. Vauchez (ed), Researching the European Court of Justice Methodological Shifts and Law’s Embeddedness, Cambridge University Press 2022;
  • G. Antonopoulou, Procedure before international commercial courts and ordinary courts: A comparative perspective, in S. Brekoulakis and G. Dimitropoulos (ed), International Commercial Courts: The Future of Transnational Adjudication, Cambridge University Press 2022;
  • Yalcin, Gizem, Erlis Themeli, Evert Stamhuis, Stefano Puntoni, Stefan Philipsen, ‘Perceptions of justice by algorithms’, Artificial Intelligence and Law 2022,
  • M.C. Ucín, Fundamentos teóricos para la participación ciudadana en los tribunales: una mirada a los casos de Interés Público (Theoretical foundations for citizen participation in the courts: a look at cases of Public Interest), in: Revista Paradigma, Ribeirão Preto-SP, v. 31, n. 1, p.67-86, jan/abr2022 (open access)
  • M.C. Ucín, Notas sobre derecho y eficacia. A propósito de la reforma estructural a través del proceso (Notes on law and efficacy. Apropos the structural reform through the process), in: Jueces para la Democracia. Información y Debate (Nº103, March 2022, pp81-89, Spain). Open Access
  • M.C. Ucín, Los derechos sociales en el entramado del Estado social (Social rights within the framework of Welfare State), Revista Direitos Culturais, Santo Ângelo, v. 16, n. 40, p. 321-335, set./dez. 2021, Brazil Open Access
  • M.C. Ucin, Cuestiones probatorias en el Litigio de Interés Público. Sobre la prueba de la violación de los derechos sociales (Evidence matters in Public Interest Litigation. On the proof of the violation of social rights), Revista Ítalo-Española de Derecho Procesal 2021-2, p 125-148 (open access);
  • E.M. van Gelder & A. van Duin, In de schaduw van het recht: over PayPal’s Resolution Centre en kwaliteitsstandaarden voor cODR op online platforms (In the Shadow of the Law: the PayPal Resolution Center and Quality Standards for ODR on online platforms), in P.T.J. Wolters, R.M. Hermans, A. Janssen & P. Ortolani (ed), Digitalisering en conflictoplossing (Digitization and Dispute Resolution), Wolters Kluwer 2021;
  • M.C. Ucín, Milieudefensie vs. Shell. O sobre las nuevas formas de la justicia (Milieudefensie vs. Shell. Or on the new forms of justice). Suplemento La Ley Actualidad, Editorial La Ley Argentina, October 2021. Author copy
  • M.C. Ucín, Tutela judicial efectiva en litigios estructurales. A propósito de las condiciones de detención en la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Effective judicial protection in structural claims. Apropos the imprisonment conditions in Buenos Aires Province), Revista Jurisprudencia Argentina 2021, 4 (3), 3-10 (author copy);
  • J. Hoevenaars, Tussen partijautonomie en ongelijkheidscompensatie: Hoe kantonrechters omgaan met niet-vertegenwoordigde partijen (Between party autonomy and inequality compensation: How subdistrict judges deal with unrepresented parties), Recht der Werkelijkheid 2021, p. 16-40; (full text)
  • X.E. Kramer, A. Biard, J. Hoevenaars & E. Themeli, New Pathways to Civil Justice in Europe, Springer 2021 (two chapters open access here);
  • A. Biard, J. Hoevenaars, X. Kramer and E. Themeli, Introduction: The Future of Access to Justice – Beyond Science Fiction, in: Xandra Kramer, Alexandre Biard, Jos Hoevenaars and Erlis Themeli, New Pathways to Civil Justice, Springer 2021 (author copy)
  • J. Hoevenaars & J. Krommendijk (2021) Black box in Luxembourg: the bewildering experience of national court judges and lawyers in the context of the preliminary ruling procedure. European Law Review, 46 (1), 61-80. (full text)
  • E. Themeli and S. Philipsen, AI as the Court: Assessing AI Deployment in Civil Cases, in K. Benyekhlef (ed), AI and Law. A Critical Overview, Éditions Thémis 2021, p. 213-232 (author copy).
  • I.N. Tzankova & X.E. Kramer, From Injunction and Settlement to Action: Collective Redress and Funding in the Netherlands, in: Alan Uzelac and Stefaan Voet, Class Actions in Europe: Holy Grail or a Wrong Trail?, Springer 2021, p. 97-130 (author copy)
  • J. Hoevenaars, Lawyering EU law: An Empirical Exploration into the Practice of Preliminary References. European Papers, 5 2020(2), (full text)
  • X.E. Kramer & I. Tillema, The Funding of Collective Redress by Entrepreneurial Parties: The EU and Dutch Context, Revista Ítalo-Española de Derecho Procesal 2020(2), p. 165-181 (full text)
  • J. Hoevenaars & X.E. Kramer, ‘Improving Access to Information in European Civil Justice: a Mission (Im)Possible?’, in: J. von Hein & T. Kruger (eds.), Informed Choices in Cross-Border Enforcement, Intersentia 2020, p. 503-525 (full text);
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Hoevenaars, ‘European Civil Procedure and the Dialogue between National Courts and the European Court of Justice’, in B. Hess and K. Lenaerts (eds.), The Fiftieth Anniversary of the European Law of Civil Procedure, Nomos 2020, p. 175-201.
  • J. Hoevenaars, Advocaten in Europa: vertegenwoordiging op het hoogste niveau? (Lawyers in Europe: Representation at the Highest Level?), Recht der Werkelijkheid 2019-3, p. 7-29 (full text)
  • J. Hoevenaars, ‘Procederen voor de hoogste rechter: Empowerment of Vervreemding?’, in A. Böcker & P. Minderhoud (eds.), Reguleren en Procederen. Bijdragen aan het seminar ter gelegenheid van de pensionering van Tetty Havinga, Wolf Legal Publishing 2020, p. 49-59 (full text)
  • A. Biard & S. Voet, ‘Expériences et attitudes de consommateurs avec le Service de Médiation pour le Consommateur/Consumentenombudsdienst : enquête sur les dossiers incomplets’, Droit de la consommation/Consumentenrecht (D.C.C.R) 2020/126;
  • E.M. van Gelder, ‘The European approach to Consumer ODR’, International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution 2019/2, p. 219-226;
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019 (296 pages) (open access);
  • J. Sorabji & X.E. Kramer, ‘Introduction - The International Business of Courts’, in X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019, p. 1-20 (full text);
  • E. Themeli, International Commercial Courts Competition in Europe: A Litigation Experience Approach, in X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019, p. 273-296. (full text);
  • A. Biard ‘Justice en ligne ou Far Www.est? La difficile régulation des plateformes en ligne de règlement extrajudiciaire des litiges’, Revue Internationale de Droit Économique 2019/2, p. 165-191;
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts in Europe and Beyond, Erasmus Law Review 2019/1 (special issue, full text);
  • E. Themeli, Matchmaking International Commercial Courts and Lawyers’ Preferences in Europe’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 70-81. (full text)
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji, International Business Courts in Europe and Beyond: A Global Competition for Justice?, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 1-9 (full text);
  • A. Biard, ‘International commercial courts in France: innovations without revolution?’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 24-32 (full text);
  • G. Antonopoulou, ‘Requirements upon agreements in favour of the NCC and the German Chambers - Crashing with the Brussels Ibis Regulation?’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 56-69 (full text);
  • A. Biard, S. Voet, K. Hanemaaijer & E.M. van Gelder, Expériences et attentes des consommateurs vis-à-vis du Service de Médiation pour le Consommateur - enquête sur les dossiers incomplets // Ervaringen en verwachtingen van consumenten over de Consumentenombudsdienst - onderzoek naar onvolledige dossiers, Juli/juillet 2019, in French and in Dutch;
  • A. Biard & B. Javaux, ‘Les recours collectifs à l’heure de la Legaltech - l’initiative européenne serait-elle déjà obsolète?’, Revue Lamy Droit Civil, September 2019, n°173;
  • A. Biard, ‘Towards high-quality consumer ADR: the Belgian experience’, in: L. Cadiet, B. Hess, M. Requejo Isidro (eds.), Privatising Dispute Resolution - Trends and Limits, Nomos 2019, vol.18 (author copy);
  • X.E. Kramer, A Common Discourse in European Private International Law? A View from the Court System, in Jan von Hein, Eva-Maria Kieninger and Giesela Rühl (eds.), How European is European Private International Law, Intersentia 2019, p. 211-230 (draft author copy);
  • G. Antonopoulou, Code-sharing agreements under the Brussels Ibis Regulation and the notion of matters relating to a contract ‒ Case note on flightright – CJEU joined cases C-274/16, C-447/16 and C-448/16, Journal of European Consumer and Market Law 2019(2), p. 89-92;
  • A. Biard & C. Hodges, Médiation de la consommation: un bilan, des défis, des pistes de réflexion pour l’avenir, Contrats Concurrence Consommation, février 2019, étude, n°2;
  • X.E. Kramer, Strengthening Civil Justice Cooperation: The Quest for Model Rules and Common Minimum Standards of Civil Procedure in Europe, in: Marco Antonio Rodrigues & Hermes Zaneti Jr, Coleção Grandes Temas do Novo CPC - v.13 - Cooperação Internacional, Editora Juspodivm 2019, p. 591-607 (author copy);
  • A. Biard & X.E. Kramer, The EU directive on representative actions for consumers: a milestone or another missed opportunity?, Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht (ZEuP) 2019, p. 249-259 (full text);
  • G. Antonopoulou, Defining International Disputes - Reflections ont he Netherlands Commercial Court Proposal, NIPR 2018, issue 4, p. 740-755 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Impact of Directive 2013/11/EU on Consumer ADR: Evidence from France and the UK, Journal of Consumer Policy 2018, p. 1-39 (full text);
  • E.M. van Gelder & A. Brenninkmeijer, The Rule of Law in the European Union: Standards of the Ombudsman, Judge, and Auditor, in: M. Hertogh & R. Kirkman (eds.), Research Handbook of the Ombudsman, Edward Elgar 2018;
  • X.E. Kramer, Challenges of Electronic Taking of Evidence: Old Problems in a New Guise and New Problems in Disguise, in: La Prueba en el Proceso/Evidence in the process (Il Conferencia Internacional & XXVI Jornadas Iberoamericanas de Derecho Procesal IIDP & IAPL), Atelier 2018, p. 391-410 (author copy);
  • A. Biard, contribution on France for the study Collective Redress in the Member States of the European Union, European Parliament, September 2018;
  • X.E. Kramer, E. Themeli & E.M. van Gelder, e-Justice in the Netherlands: The Rocky Road to Digitised Justice, in: M. Weller & M. Wendland (eds.), Digital Single Market: Bausteine eines Rechts in der Digitalen Welt, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2018, p. 209-235 (author copy);
  • E.M. van Gelder, Online Dispute Resolution: een veelbelovend initiatief voor toegang tot het recht?, Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht 2018, issue 7/8, p. 262-267.
  • A. Biard, Collective redress in the EU: a rainbow behind the clouds?, ERA Forum May 2018, p. 1-16 (full text);
  • X.E. Kramer, Judicial Cooperation in Civil Matters, in: P.J. Kuijper, F. Amtenbrink, D. Curtin, B. De Witte, A. McDonnell & S. Van den Bogaert (Eds.), The Law of the European Union, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International 2018, p. 721-740 (author copy);
  • E.M. van Gelder & A.B. Biard, The Online Resolution Platform after one Year of Operation: A Work in Progress with Promising Potential, Tijdschrift voor Consumentenrecht & Handelspraktijken 2018(2), p. 77-82 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Monitoring Consumer ADR in the EU - a Critical Perspective, European Review of Private Law 2 (2018), p. 171-196 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Sale temps pour l’action de groupe…la nécessaire recherche d’outils alternatifs pour résoudre les litiges de masse, Revue Lamy Droit Civil 157 2018, p. 21-26 (full text).

Short papers, blogs and media

Selected earlier publications relevant to the ERC and Vici project