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Seminar Series Trends and Challenges in Costs and Funding of Civil Justice

From December 2021 – June 2022, the team of the Vici project ‘Affordable Access to Justice’ at Erasmus School of Law, will organize an online seminar series dedicated to Trends and Challenges in Costs and Funding of Civil Justice.

On 15 December, the series will kick off with a general session that will address several topics of access to justice and costs and funding, including collective redress and costs reforms, and will present a Law & Economics perspective.

The other seminars will zoom in on topics such as legal mobilization in Europe, the impact of Public Interest Litigation on access to justice, third party funding (TPF) in Europe, austerity policies in southern Europe and funding and costs of ADR in civil justice.

You can register for (one or more of) the seminars here.


UPCOMING EVENT: 15 December 2021, 15.30-17.30 CEST

First session: Access to Justice and Costs and Funding of Civil Litigation

The first seminar will discuss key topics and developments in costs and funding of litigation, including third-party litigation funding. It will be combined with the launch of the book New Pathways to Civil Justice in Europe (Springer, 2021) that emerged from an earlier conference organized by the ERC project team.

Judith Resnik (Yale University) who authored the concluding chapter (available open access) will, among others, discuss the question from which perspective to understand the civil legal system so as to make judgments about whether a system is just or unjust.

Ianika Tzankova (Tilburg University) will discuss access to justice against the background of trends in global dispute resolution where big players are shaping the future, and the funding of litigation.

John Sorabji (University College London) will focus on developments in costs and funding of civil justice, including the move to recoverable fees, the upcoming review of the Jackson costs reform and funding of representative actions.

Louis Visscher (Erasmus School of Law) will present a Law & Economics perspective on costs and funding, including rational apathy, risk aversion and agency problems.

The seminar will be introduced and moderated by Xandra Kramer, PI of the Vici and ERC projects at Erasmus School of Law.

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This page displays publications resulting from the ERC project and the Vici project

Scholarly publications

  • E.M. van Gelder & A. van Duin, In de schaduw van het recht: over PayPal’s Resolution Centre en kwaliteitsstandaarden voor cODR op online platforms (In the Shadow of the Law: the PayPal Resolution Center and Quality Standards for ODR on online platforms), in P.T.J. Wolters, R.M. Hermans, A. Janssen & P. Ortolani (ed), Digitalisering en conflictoplossing (Digitization and Dispute Resolution), Wolters Kluwer 2021;
  • M.C. Ucín, Tutela judicial efectiva en litigios estructurales. A propósito de las condiciones de detención en la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Effective judicial protection in structural claims. Apropos the imprisonment conditions in Buenos Aires Province), Revista Jurisprudencia Argentina 2021, 4 (3), 3-10 (author copy);
  • J. Hoevenaars, Tussen partijautonomie en ongelijkheidscompensatie: Hoe kantonrechters omgaan met niet-vertegenwoordigde partijen (Between party autonomy and inequality compensation: How subdistrict judges deal with unrepresented parties), Recht der Werkelijkheid 2021 (forthcoming)
  • X.E. Kramer, A. Biard, J. Hoevenaars & E. Themeli, New Pathways to Civil Justice in Europe, Springer 2021 (two chapters open access here);
  • A. Biard, J. Hoevenaars, X. Kramer and E. Themeli, Introduction: The Future of Access to Justice – Beyond Science Fiction, in: Xandra Kramer, Alexandre Biard, Jos Hoevenaars and Erlis Themeli, New Pathways to Civil Justice, Springer 2021 (author copy)
  • J. Hoevenaars & J. Krommendijk (2021) Black box in Luxembourg: the bewildering experience of national court judges and lawyers in the context of the preliminary ruling procedure. European Law Review, 46 (1), 61-80. (full text)
  • E. Themeli and S. Philipsen, AI as the Court: Assessing AI Deployment in Civil Cases, in K. Benyekhlef (ed), AI and Law. A Critical Overview, Éditions Thémis 2021, p. 213-232 (author copy).
  • I.N. Tzankova & X.E. Kramer, From Injunction and Settlement to Action: Collective Redress and Funding in the Netherlands, in: Alan Uzelac and Stefaan Voet, Class Actions in Europe: Holy Grail or a Wrong Trail?, Springer 2021, p. 97-130 (author copy)
  • J. Hoevenaars, Lawyering EU law: An Empirical Exploration into the Practice of Preliminary References. European Papers, 5 2020(2), (full text)
  • X.E. Kramer & I. Tillema, The Funding of Collective Redress by Entrepreneurial Parties: The EU and Dutch Context, Revista Ítalo-Española de Derecho Procesal 2020(2), p. 165-181 (full text)
  • J. Hoevenaars & X.E. Kramer, ‘Improving Access to Information in European Civil Justice: a Mission (Im)Possible?’, in: J. von Hein & T. Kruger (eds.), Informed Choices in Cross-Border Enforcement, Intersentia 2020, p. 503-525 (full text);
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Hoevenaars, ‘European Civil Procedure and the Dialogue between National Courts and the European Court of Justice’, in B. Hess and K. Lenaerts (eds.), The Fiftieth Anniversary of the European Law of Civil Procedure, Nomos 2020, p. 175-201.
  • J. Hoevenaars, Advocaten in Europa: vertegenwoordiging op het hoogste niveau? (Lawyers in Europe: Representation at the Highest Level?), Recht der Werkelijkheid 2019-3, p. 7-29 (full text)
  • J. Hoevenaars, ‘Procederen voor de hoogste rechter: Empowerment of Vervreemding?’, in A. Böcker & P. Minderhoud (eds.), Reguleren en Procederen. Bijdragen aan het seminar ter gelegenheid van de pensionering van Tetty Havinga, Wolf Legal Publishing 2020, p. 49-59 (full text)
  • A. Biard & S. Voet, ‘Expériences et attitudes de consommateurs avec le Service de Médiation pour le Consommateur/Consumentenombudsdienst : enquête sur les dossiers incomplets’, Droit de la consommation/Consumentenrecht (D.C.C.R) 2020/126;
  • E.M. van Gelder, ‘The European approach to Consumer ODR’, International Journal of Online Dispute Resolution 2019/2, p. 219-226;
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019 (296 pages) (open access);
  • J. Sorabji & X.E. Kramer, ‘Introduction - The International Business of Courts’, in X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019, p. 1-20 (full text);
  • E. Themeli, International Commercial Courts Competition in Europe: A Litigation Experience Approach, in X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts: A European and Global Perspective, Eleven International Publishing 2019, p. 273-296. (full text);
  • A. Biard ‘Justice en ligne ou Far Www.est? La difficile régulation des plateformes en ligne de règlement extrajudiciaire des litiges’, Revue Internationale de Droit Économique 2019/2, p. 165-191;
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji (eds.), International Business Courts in Europe and Beyond, Erasmus Law Review 2019/1 (special issue, full text);
  • E. Themeli, Matchmaking International Commercial Courts and Lawyers’ Preferences in Europe’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 70-81. (full text)
  • X.E. Kramer & J. Sorabji, International Business Courts in Europe and Beyond: A Global Competition for Justice?, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 1-9 (full text);
  • A. Biard, ‘International commercial courts in France: innovations without revolution?’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 24-32 (full text);
  • G. Antonopoulou, ‘Requirements upon agreements in favour of the NCC and the German Chambers - Crashing with the Brussels Ibis Regulation?’, Erasmus Law Review 2019, p. 56-69 (full text);
  • A. Biard, S. Voet, K. Hanemaaijer & E.M. van Gelder, Expériences et attentes des consommateurs vis-à-vis du Service de Médiation pour le Consommateur - enquête sur les dossiers incomplets // Ervaringen en verwachtingen van consumenten over de Consumentenombudsdienst - onderzoek naar onvolledige dossiers, Juli/juillet 2019, in French and in Dutch;
  • A. Biard & B. Javaux, ‘Les recours collectifs à l’heure de la Legaltech - l’initiative européenne serait-elle déjà obsolète?’, Revue Lamy Droit Civil, September 2019, n°173;
  • A. Biard, ‘Towards high-quality consumer ADR: the Belgian experience’, in: L. Cadiet, B. Hess, M. Requejo Isidro (eds.), Privatising Dispute Resolution - Trends and Limits, Nomos 2019, vol.18 (author copy);
  • X.E. Kramer, A Common Discourse in European Private International Law? A View from the Court System, in Jan von Hein, Eva-Maria Kieninger and Giesela Rühl (eds.), How European is European Private International Law, Intersentia 2019, p. 211-230 (draft author copy);
  • G. Antonopoulou, Code-sharing agreements under the Brussels Ibis Regulation and the notion of matters relating to a contract ‒ Case note on flightright – CJEU joined cases C-274/16, C-447/16 and C-448/16, Journal of European Consumer and Market Law 2019(2), p. 89-92;
  • A. Biard & C. Hodges, Médiation de la consommation: un bilan, des défis, des pistes de réflexion pour l’avenir, Contrats Concurrence Consommation, février 2019, étude, n°2;
  • X.E. Kramer, Strengthening Civil Justice Cooperation: The Quest for Model Rules and Common Minimum Standards of Civil Procedure in Europe, in: Marco Antonio Rodrigues & Hermes Zaneti Jr, Coleção Grandes Temas do Novo CPC - v.13 - Cooperação Internacional, Editora Juspodivm 2019, p. 591-607 (author copy);
  • A. Biard & X.E. Kramer, The EU directive on representative actions for consumers: a milestone or another missed opportunity?, Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht (ZEuP) 2019, p. 249-259 (full text);
  • G. Antonopoulou, Defining International Disputes - Reflections ont he Netherlands Commercial Court Proposal, NIPR 2018, issue 4, p. 740-755 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Impact of Directive 2013/11/EU on Consumer ADR: Evidence from France and the UK, Journal of Consumer Policy 2018, p. 1-39 (full text);
  • E.M. van Gelder & A. Brenninkmeijer, The Rule of Law in the European Union: Standards of the Ombudsman, Judge, and Auditor, in: M. Hertogh & R. Kirkman (eds.), Research Handbook of the Ombudsman, Edward Elgar 2018;
  • X.E. Kramer, Challenges of Electronic Taking of Evidence: Old Problems in a New Guise and New Problems in Disguise, in: La Prueba en el Proceso/Evidence in the process (Il Conferencia Internacional & XXVI Jornadas Iberoamericanas de Derecho Procesal IIDP & IAPL), Atelier 2018, p. 391-410 (author copy);
  • A. Biard, contribution on France for the study Collective Redress in the Member States of the European Union, European Parliament, September 2018;
  • X.E. Kramer, E. Themeli & E.M. van Gelder, e-Justice in the Netherlands: The Rocky Road to Digitised Justice, in: M. Weller & M. Wendland (eds.), Digital Single Market: Bausteine eines Rechts in der Digitalen Welt, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck 2018, p. 209-235 (author copy);
  • E.M. van Gelder, Online Dispute Resolution: een veelbelovend initiatief voor toegang tot het recht?, Maandblad voor Vermogensrecht 2018, issue 7/8, p. 262-267.
  • A. Biard, Collective redress in the EU: a rainbow behind the clouds?, ERA Forum May 2018, p. 1-16 (full text);
  • X.E. Kramer, Judicial Cooperation in Civil Matters, in: P.J. Kuijper, F. Amtenbrink, D. Curtin, B. De Witte, A. McDonnell & S. Van den Bogaert (Eds.), The Law of the European Union, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International 2018, p. 721-740 (author copy);
  • E.M. van Gelder & A.B. Biard, The Online Resolution Platform after one Year of Operation: A Work in Progress with Promising Potential, Tijdschrift voor Consumentenrecht & Handelspraktijken 2018(2), p. 77-82 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Monitoring Consumer ADR in the EU - a Critical Perspective, European Review of Private Law 2 (2018), p. 171-196 (full text);
  • A. Biard, Sale temps pour l’action de groupe…la nécessaire recherche d’outils alternatifs pour résoudre les litiges de masse, Revue Lamy Droit Civil 157 2018, p. 21-26 (full text).

Short papers, blogs and media

Selected earlier publications relevant to the ERC and Vici project